The Journey of Plastics: What Happens to All the Plastics We Put in the Garbage

The Journey of Plastics

Plastics have become an integral part of modern life. From packaging to electronics, they serve a wide range of purposes. However, what happens to all the plastics we dispose of in the garbage? Are they effectively recycled, or do they end up polluting our planet? In this article, we take a deep dive into the journey of plastics once they enter the waste stream.

The Plastics Paradox

Plastics are versatile, durable, and lightweight, making them a preferred choice for many applications. However, these same characteristics that make plastics so useful also present a significant challenge when it comes to managing their end-of-life disposal.

Collection and Sorting

People usually throw plastics into the garbage, and these plastics generally end up in local collection systems, like curbside bins or designated drop-off locations. The first step in the process is to collect and sort the plastic waste. This can be a complex task due to the various types and forms of plastics.


Ideally, plastics should be recycled into new products. The recycling process involves cleaning, shredding, melting, and reforming the plastics into raw materials for manufacturing. However, not all plastics are created equal. They come in various types, including PET, HDPE, PVC, and more, and each type requires specific recycling methods. The effectiveness of recycling largely depends on the availability of suitable infrastructure and the commitment of consumers to separate plastics from other waste.

The Journey of Plastics
           The Journey of Plastics

The Challenge of Contamination

One of the major hurdles in plastic recycling is contamination. Contaminants such as food residues, non-recyclable materials, and mixed plastic types can compromise the quality of recycled materials. This contamination can lead to recycling inefficiencies and, in some cases, render entire batches of plastic unrecyclable.

Reducing and Reusing

While recycling is crucial, reducing plastic consumption and reusing items can significantly alleviate the plastic waste problem. Choosing products with minimal packaging and opting for reusable items can help reduce the need for single-use plastics in the first place.

Incineration and Energy Recovery

In some regions, plastic waste is incinerated to produce energy. While this approach can reduce the volume of plastics in landfills, it has environmental consequences, including air pollution and the release of greenhouse gases. Advanced waste-to-energy technologies aim to minimize these negative impacts.


Plastics that are not recycled, incinerated, or repurposed often end up in landfills. Plastics in landfills take centuries to decompose, and during this time, they can release harmful chemicals and pollutants into the environment.

The Issue of Single-Use Plastics

Single-use plastics, like plastic bags and disposable cutlery, pose a severe challenge to waste management. Moreover, their short lifespan and low recycling rates contribute to the growing issue of plastic pollution in our oceans and on land.

Marine Plastic Pollution

Furthermore, a significant portion of plastic waste ends up in our oceans, harming marine life and ecosystems. Hence, plastic debris breaks down into smaller microplastics, which can enter the food chain and pose a threat to human health as well.


Microplastics, often invisible to the naked eye, have infiltrated various environments, from the depths of the ocean to the air we breathe. These tiny plastic particles can have long-lasting ecological and health impacts, as they persist in the environment for extended periods.

What You Can Do

As responsible citizens, we have a role to play in addressing the plastic waste problem. Here are some steps you can take:

  1. Reduce: Minimize your consumption of single-use plastics by opting for reusable alternatives.
  2. Recycle: Follow local recycling guidelines and ensure your plastics are clean and properly sorted.
  3. Advocate: Support policies and initiatives that promote plastic waste reduction and recycling.
  4. Participate: Join community clean-up efforts to remove plastics from natural environments.


In conclusion, the journey of plastics from our garbage can be complex, with various outcomes, from recycling to pollution. By making informed choices and advocating for responsible plastic waste management, we can work towards a more sustainable future and mitigate the environmental impact of plastics. It’s essential to recognise that our actions can significantly influence the fate of plastics once they leave our hands.